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Gertrude and Max Hoffmann Papers

Finding Aid & Inventory

Music manuscripts and theatrical memorabilia of Gertrude and Max Hoffmann, famous vaudevillian and performing arts figures. Gertrude Hoffmann was known as a vaudevillian, mimic, dancer, and the director of The Gertrude Hoffmann Girls. Max, one of the first arrangers to use ragtime rhythm, was a composer and musical director. The collection (1900-1956) includes music manuscripts, programs, photographs, playbills, notebooks, newspaper clippings, and scrapbooks.

Biographical and Historical Note

Max Hoffmann was born in Gnesen, Poland on December 8, 1873 and died in Hollywood, California on May 21, 1963. He was a composer, conductor and arranger of American music. Originally a ragtime arranger, he is described as being "the first white man to make successfully the first rag arrangements" (Berlin 65). Oxford Music Online describes Hoffmann and his work as "a model of scoring for the nascent piano ragtime industry…[which] helped popularize the work of …ragtime pioneers." Hoffmann also worked as an arranger and conductor for vaudeville acts and as a Broadway composer. He wrote for acts such as the Rogers Brothers and the theatrical producers Klaw and Erlanger. One of his best known Broadway scores is The Parisian Model, which was produced by Oscar Hammerstein. He was also famous for his song The Hoffmann Glide. Hoffmann served as the composer and musical director for his wife, Gertrude Hoffmann and her dancing troupes known as The Gertrude Hoffmann Girls.

Catherine Gertrude Hayes Hoffmann was born in San Francisco on May 7, 1885, the daughter of John and Catherine (née Brogan) Hayes and died October 21, 1966 in Los Angeles, California. Gertrude Hoffmann was a legendary vaudevillian dancer, mimic, and choreographer who, early in her career, worked with such stage greats as Anna Held and Flo Ziegfield. Known for her Salome dance, Gertrude Hoffmann went on to become a celebrated imitation artist and one of the first female dance directors and choreographers in vaudeville and Broadway (Cohen-Stratyner 430). Gertrude Hoffmann was well-known for introducing the United States to the  Ballet Russes in 1910, when she brought her version of the ballet to America. She also worked extensively with Oscar and William Hammerstein, and founded the dance group The Gertrude Hoffmann Girls. The Hoffmann Girls regularly toured in Europe and the United States including appearances at the Moulin-Rouge in 1924-1925, engagements in Paris and London in 1934-35, and at least one appearance in Hollywood. Gertrude Hoffmann was also a co-director of a dance studio and is credited with various musical compositions.

The couple's later years are less well-known. A few biographers attribute a position as a studio arranger in Hollywood to Max and extras parts in films to Gertrude. Evidence, however, of another actress with the same name (Gertrude W. Hoffman) complicate the record. The couple had one son, Max Hoffmann, Jr. He was born in 1902, married Norma Allison, and predeceased both his parents in 1945. Their daughter-in-law, Norma Allison (later Norma Terris), was an actress best known for her role as Magnolia in the musical Show Boat.

Collection Overview

This collection provides a look into the professional lives life of two influential artists in the first half of the twentieth century. As one of the first female dance directors in vaudeville and Broadway, Gertrude Hoffmann's collection of newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, photographs, music, notes, and correspondence supports research into the day-to-day details of performing and directing dance and theatre productions. Max Hoffmann's music manuscripts and personal music library provide a resource for both the type of original music that was being written at that time and how it related to and incorporated more traditional, classical music. Personal notebooks and family photographs also provide a more intimate glimpse into the life of the couple. Other material types include newspaper clippings, photographs, music manuscripts, personal correspondence, performance notes, programs, publications, and performance posters. The majority of the collection centers around publicity, music, and notes from The Gertrude Hoffmann Girls, with a smaller but substantial amount of material from Gertrude Hoffmann's own performances as well as personal family records.

The collection is organized into eleven series: Series 1. Clippings; Series 2. Correspondence; Series 3. Notebooks, Journals, and Notes; Series 4. Scrapbooks; Series 5. Scripts; Series 6. Photographs; Series 7. Posters; Series 8. Music Manuscripts; Series 9. Ephemera and Oversized; Series 10. Oversized Photographs; Series 11. Programs and Publications.

Collection Inventory

  • Clippings
    • (1900-1926) box 1
    • Paris tour clippings, mainly French, some English (1934-1936) box 1
    • (1940-1953) box 1
    • French language clippings (undated) box 1
    • Duplicate clippings box 1
  • Correspondence (1900-1956)
    • Anna Held, 1906 (1906) box 2 folder 1
    • Edgar Owens, 1931 box 2 folder 2
    • Letters, 1932 box 2 folder 3
    • Paris: letters, contracts, receipts, 1934 box 2 folder 4
    • Letters, 1935 box 2 folder 5
    • Letters, 1936-1937 box 2 folder 6
    • Letters, telegrams, contracts, 1939 box 2 folder 7
    • Letters, 1940-1942 box 2 folder 8
    • Letters, 1943 box 2 folder 9
    • Letters, 1945 box 2 folder 10
    • Letters, 1946 box 2 folder 11
    • Letters, 1948-1949 box 2 folder 12
    • Letters, 1950 box 2 folder 13
    • Letters, 1951 box 2 folder 14
    • Letters, 1952-1954 box 2 folder 15
    • Letters, 1956 box 2 folder 16
    • Letters, general (undated) box 2 folder 17
    • Clippings, photos, and notes from correspondence, unsorted box 2 folder 18
    • Actor's Fund membership, Max Hoffmann box 2 folder 19
    • Unused stationery box 2 folder 20
  • Notebooks, Journals, and Notes
    • Gertrude Hoffmann
      • Personal notebooks box 2 folder 21
      • Address book box 2 folder 22
      • Performance notes box 2 folder 23
      • Costume and performance notes box 2 folder 24
      • Performance notes box 2 folder 25
      • Performance and music notes box 2 folder 26
      • Typed inventory box 2 folder 27
      • Choregraphy notes box 2 folder 28
    • Max Hoffmann
      • Personal and performance notebooks box 2 folder 29
      • Chevalier notebook box 2 folder 30
      • Staff paper notebook box 2 folder 31
      • Financial records box 2 folder 32
      • Apartment inventory and packing lists, 1953 box 2 folder 33
      • Goltaire notes box 2 folder 34
      • Lyrics, notes, and music by Max Hoffmann box 13 folder 64
  • Scrapbooks
    • Moulin Rouge box 2 folder 35
    • Unsorted clippings box 11 folder 6
    • Sketchbooks 1 and 2 box 2 folder 36
  • Scripts
    • Sumurun Script box 2 folder 37
    • Sumurun Scenario box 2 folder 38
    • Skit for Cocoanut Grove by Edgar Allan Woolf box 2 folder 39
  • Photographs
    • Gertrude Hoffmann: Performance
      • Early portraits box 3 folder 1
      • Later portraits box 3 folder 2
      • Vaudeville and mimic box 3 folder 3
      • Dance box 3 folder 4
      • Signed headshots box 3 folder 5
      • Bookmarks box 3 folder 6
      • Hammerstein's roof garden box 3 folder 7
    • The Gertrude Hoffmann Girls
      • Paris box 3 folder 8
      • London box 3 folder 9
      • Hollywood box 3 folder 10
      • Headshots box 3 folder 11
      • Full length box 3 folder 12
      • Signed photographs box 3 folder 13
      • Unsorted box 3 folder 14
    • Max and Gertrude Hoffmann: Family
      • Max and Gertrude box 3 folder 15
      • Max Hoffmann box 3 folder 16
      • Gertrude Hoffmann box 3 folder 17
      • Hoffman Family box 3 folder 18
      • Gertrude Hoffmann and friends box 3 folder 19
      • [Hayes siblings] box 3 folder 20
      • Norma Allison, wife of Max Jr. box 3 folder 21
    • Miscellaneous
      • "Lee," 1909 box 3 folder 22
      • Judy Gilmore box 3 folder 23
      • William Hermann Jr., 1928 box 3 folder 24
      • Phil [nephew?] box 3 folder 25
      • Emma Kligge box 3 folder 26
      • Harriet Fowler box 3 folder 27
      • Elsie and Gertrude Holzer box 3 folder 28
      • Unidentified headshots and portraits box 3 folder 29
      • Unidentified dancers box 3 folder 30
      • Unidentified box 3 folder 31
  • Posters
    • Ballet Russes
    • Hoffmann Girls
    • Oversized Posters oversize 1 oversize 4 oversize 3 (restricted) oversize 2 (restricted)
  • Music Manuscripts
    • Parts I
      • Acrobatic box 4 folder 1
      • Ballet box 4 folder 2
      • Ballet Balinese box 4 folder 3
      • Bell Number box 4 folder 4
      • Can Can Bal Tabarin box 4 folder 5
      • Carmen box 4 folder 6
      • Cassy box 4 folder 7
      • Dance (Sheeran) box 4 folder 8
      • Emma box 4 folder 9
      • Esquire box 4 folder 10
      • Fashion Parade-Webbing Number box 4 folder 11
      • Ferral box 5 folder 1
      • Florence box 5 folder 2
      • Flower Pot box 5 folder 3
      • George Cohan box 5 folder 4
      • The High School Walk box 5 folder 5
      • India box 5 folder 6
      • Koenke Kids box 5 folder 7
      • La Mattchiche box 5 folder 8
      • Loi Fuller box 5 folder 9
      • Mae West box 5 folder 10
    • Parts II
      • M.C. Coy box 5 folder 11
      • Military box 5 folder 12
      • Moonlight Bathing box 5 folder 13
      • New Fencing box 5 folder 14
      • Pennington box 5 folder 15
      • Savage box 5 folder 16
      • Sumurun/Zuretes Bild: In Der Schaubude box 5 folder 17
      • Tennis Queen box 6 folder 1
      • Victory Medley box 6 folder 2
      • Waltz in Springtime box 6 folder 3
      • Webbing box 6 folder 4
      • Williams box 6 folder 5
    • Single Parts
      • Buck/Sprites/Waltz Clog-Violin box 6 folder 6
      • Buck/Sprites/Dancing-Bass box 6 folder 7
      • Chevalier-Violin box 6 folder 8
      • Espana-Violin box 6 folder 9
      • Horns box 6 folder 10
      • I'm Sure-You're Sure Vocal Line box 6 folder 11
      • Loigman-Percussion box 6 folder 12
      • Pancederos-Violin box 6 folder 13
      • Rhumba/Buck/Waltz Clog/Sprites/Butterflies/Dancing/Shimmic-Cornet Parts box 6 folder 14
      • Russian box 6 folder 15
      • Stompin' at the Savoy-Alto Sax box 6 folder 16
      • Three Waltzes-Horn box 6 folder 17
      • Veil Dance Valse-Drum box 6 folder 18
    • Full Scores
      • Amaya box 6 folder 19
      • Don't Let Them Get You Down box 6 folder 20
      • Fan box 6 folder 21
      • Hat Dance box 6 folder 22
      • Lazy Moon box 6 folder 23
      • Negliger box 6 folder 24
      • Polka (Colombo) box 6 folder 25
      • Stone Age box 6 folder 26
    • Scores and Parts
      • Booloo box 7 folder 1
      • Cymbal Dance box 7 folder 2
      • Dance Modern-Hoffmann Girls box 7 folder 3
      • Drum March box 7 folder 4
      • Ella Ferucca box 7 folder 5
      • Fandanguilo box 7 folder 6
      • Held box 7 folder 7
      • Lolita box 7 folder 8
      • Opening Part I box 7 folder 9
      • Opening Part II box 7 folder 10
      • Oriental Number box 7 folder 11
      • Salome box 8 folder 1
      • Serpentine Dance box 8 folder 2
      • St. Denis box 8 folder 3
      • Tango box 8 folder 4
      • Ted Lewis box 8 folder 5
      • Voodoo Revel box 8 folder 6
      • White Peacock box 8 folder 7
    • Piano and Vocal Scores
      • Cocoons box 8 folder 8
      • Eleanor Powell box 8 folder 9
      • Hollywood Sextette box 8 folder 10
      • Kiss-Kiss-Kiss-Kiss (To the Tune of a Radio Band) box 8 folder 11
      • Lawrence box 8 folder 12
      • Mothers of the World box 8 folder 13
      • My Sing-Song Girlie box 8 folder 14
      • Nocturne box 8 folder 15
      • Rainbow Over Hollywood box 8 folder 16
      • Red Lips box 8 folder 17
      • Rose Marie box 8 folder 18
      • The Country Road box 8 folder 19
      • The Dancing Lesson box 8 folder 20
      • The Romping Redheads box 8 folder 21
      • The Skywriter's Song box 8 folder 22
      • Spanish Rose box 8 folder 23
    • Piano Scores
      • 42 box 9 folder 1
      • 2 Aristocrats box 9 folder 2
      • Allegrias Jerez box 9 folder 3
      • Ann (Zambra) box 9 folder 4
      • Baile Flamenco box 9 folder 5
      • Bohemia (Tambour) box 9 folder 6
      • Bring 'Em Back Alive box 9 folder 7
      • Bulerias box 9 folder 8
      • Cansino box 9 folder 9
      • Cantour box 9 folder 10
      • Castle box 9 folder 11
      • Caucasian Number box 9 folder 12
      • Change Music box 9 folder 13
      • Chanson de Feu Follet (Bulerias No. 14) box 9 folder 14
      • Cohan box 9 folder 15
      • Coplos y Toros box 9 folder 16
      • Dance of India box 9 folder 17
      • Danube box 9 folder 18
      • Eddie Foy box 9 folder 19
      • Ella's Dance box 9 folder 20
      • Encore box 9 folder 21
      • Fado box 9 folder 22
      • Farruca a compass box 9 folder 23
      • Flamenco box 9 folder 24
      • Fonderie d'acier box 9 folder 25
      • Gitana box 9 folder 26
      • Gloria box 9 folder 27
      • Gold Ballet (Entrance) box 9 folder 28
      • Goyesca box 9 folder 29
      • Hamparillo box 9 folder 30
      • Hoffmann Dance box 9 folder 31
      • I'll Close My Eyes box 9 folder 32
      • Jaleo box 9 folder 33
      • Jammin' box 9 folder 34
      • Jolson (California) box 9 folder 35
      • Judy Harain box 9 folder 36
      • Launder box 9 folder 37
      • Leonard box 9 folder 38
      • Lindy Hop box 9 folder 39
      • March box 9 folder 40
    • Piano Scores II
      • 4 Marx Brothers box 9 folder 41
      • Memory box 9 folder 42
      • Moorish Numbers box 9 folder 43
      • Ned Wayburn's Minstrel Misses box 9 folder 44
      • The Night Can be Blind box 9 folder 45
      • No. 29-Mavace (The Clothes Rack) box 9 folder 46
      • Old Spain box 9 folder 47
      • Paris Model (Finale Act II) box 9 folder 48
      • Raymondo box 9 folder 49
      • Rhapsodie box 9 folder 50
      • Russian Dance box 9 folder 51
      • Servillanas (Fernandez and Ellas) box 9 folder 52
      • Sky Blue Girls box 9 folder 53
      • Soft Shoe box 9 folder 54
      • Solea box 9 folder 55
      • Solerias-Candide box 9 folder 56
      • Spanish Rumba box 9 folder 57
      • The Star and Stripes Forever box 9 folder 58
      • Stokowski box 9 folder 59
      • Tacit Fanfare box 9 folder 60
      • Tambour box 9 folder 61
      • Tambourine Dance box 9 folder 62
      • Tango Variation 2-Rose Marie box 9 folder 63
      • Tanguay box 9 folder 64
      • Tangway box 9 folder 65
      • Trapeze Song box 9 folder 66
      • Valse Tennis box 9 folder 67
      • Vepeto box 9 folder 68
      • Zapeteado box 9 folder 69
      • Misc. Piano scores w/ lyrics box 9 folder 70
    • Printed Music/Personal Music Library
      • Albeniz, I.
        • Album of Eight Pieces for the Pianoforte box 10 folder 1
        • Midsummer Nights Serenade box 10 folder 2
        • Tango in D. box 10 folder 3
      • Alstone-Place Pigalle box 10 folder 4
      • Chavarri, E.-El Viejo Castillo Moro box 10 folder 5
      • Chopin, F.
        • Complete Works for the Pianoforte Book I box 10 folder 6
        • Valse box 10 folder 7
        • Waltz in D Flat-"Minute Waltz" box 10 folder 8
      • Czerny-School of Velocity box 10 folder 9
      • Drigo, R.-"Reconciliation"; Polka de Caractere box 10 folder 10
      • Exercise Practice Book box 10 folder 11
      • Falla, Manuel D.
        • Danse du Meinier box 10 folder 12
        • Danse Rituelle du Feu box 10 folder 13
      • Friml, R.-Rose Marie box 10 folder 14
      • Gautier, L.-Le Secret box 10 folder 15
      • Griffes, C.T.-Piano Music box 10 folder 16
      • Lecuona, E.-Malaquena box 10 folder 17
      • Leo, F. -No Show To-night! box 10 folder 18
      • Malnech-Signorelli-Park Avenue Fantasy box 10 folder 19
      • Offenbach-Can-Can Dance box 10 folder 20
      • Piano G. H.-Spanish A box 10 folder 21
      • Robin, L.-Love in Bloom box 10 folder 22
      • Scene III box 10 folder 23
      • Scharwenka, X.-Polish Dance box 10 folder 24
      • Simons, M.-Danse De Feu box 10 folder 25
      • Sissle and Blake-Charleston Dance from the Chocolate Dandies box 10 folder 26
      • Strauss, J.-Voice of Spring box 10 folder 27
      • Slyva, G.-If You Knew Susie (Like I Know Susie) box 10 folder 28
      • [Title-Russian] box 10 folder 29
      • Variation II box 10 folder 30
      • Weinberg, M. -Where Do You Work-a John? box 10 folder 31
      • No. 2 box 10 folder 32
      • No. 9 Danse des confidentes No. 10 Demons et Sorcieres box 10 folder 33
      • No. 16 box 10 folder 34
      • Piano Accompaniment box 10 folder 35
      • Fragments from personal music library box 10 folder 36
    • Notes, Scripts, and Misc./Fragments
      • Notes box 10 folder 37
      • Composition Workbook box 10 folder 38
      • Fairyland/Midsummer Fragmented Script and Piano Score box 10 folder 39
      • Hoffman Introduction box 10 folder 40
      • Jap Number box 10 folder 41
      • Mary Douglas/President -Fragmented Scripts and Notes box 10 folder 42
      • Revue-Notes box 10 folder 43
      • Wigman Notes box 10 folder 44
      • Misc. Compositions, Fragments, Lyrics, Notes box 10 folder 45
      • Manuscript Paper box 10 folder 46
      • Spanish Jota-Notes box 10 folder 47
      • What is Anything Without Love box 10 folder 48
      • Bayes box 10 folder 49
      • Down on the Farm box 10 folder 50
      • Dreamy Eyes box 10 folder 51
      • Fontane box 10 folder 52
      • Guide Book box 10 folder 53
      • Jack Horner box 10 folder 54
      • London box 10 folder 55
      • Nooney Bob and Pat box 10 folder 56
      • Rainbow Song box 10 folder 57
      • Silhouette Dance box 10 folder 58
      • Moonlight Bathing box 10 folder 59
      • Misc. Compositions and Notes box 10 folder 60 and 61
  • Ephemera and Oversized
    • De Long hook and eye box 11 folder 1
    • File folders with handwriting box 11 folder 2
    • Nail file box 11 folder 3
    • Reference material box 11 folder 4
    • Neverbreak trunk item 14
  • Oversized Photographs
    • Gertrude Hoffmann box 12
    • Gertrude Hoffmann Girls box 12
  • Programs and Publications
    • Various Programs
      • Follies of 1907 box 13 folder 1
      • Saison Ballet Russes-Original and American; Tableau de La Troupe-Programs box 13 folder 5
      • The Century Girl-1916 box 13 folder 2
      • B. F. Keith's Theatre News box 13 folder 3
      • Winter Garden-1926 box 13 folder 4
      • Poseidon Fountain box 13 folder 5
      • The Crazy Show box 13 folder 6
      • Dance Revue, Gertrude Hoffmann School of Stage Dancing box 13 folder 7
      • Programme-French box 13 folder 8
      • Hippodrome Brighton-1939 box 13 folder 9
      • B. F. Keith's Theatre News box 13 folder 10
      • Katherine Dunham box 13 folder 11
      • Devi Dja, A Night in Bali box 13 folder 12
      • Alvin Theatre box 13 folder 13
      • The Theatre of Angna Enters-1941 box 13 folder 14
      • Carmelita Maracci box 13 folder 15
      • Adelphi Theatre, Rosario and Antonio-1948 box 13 folder 16
      • Museum of Modern Art box 13 folder 17
      • The Playbill for the National Theatre box 13 folder 18
      • Tatiana Piankova, Studio of Russian Ballet box 13 folder 19
      • Ballet Russe, Metropolitan Opera House-1946 box 13 folder 20
      • Rogers Brothers, Knickerbocker Theatre box 13 folder 21
      • Cecilia Loftus, Lyceum Theatre-1938 box 13 folder 22
      • Maria-Theresa and the Heliconiades, Carnegie Hall box 13 folder 23
      • Fokine Ballet-1937 box 13 folder 24
      • Margaret Severn, Barbizon Plaza Theatre-1943 box 13 folder 25
      • Unity Through Dance, The Studio Theatre-1943 box 13 folder 26
      • Around the World with Dance and Song box 13 folder 27
      • Harold Kreutxburg, The Ziegfeld Theatre box 13 folder 28
      • The Theatre: The Magazine of Playgoers-1911 box 13 folder 29
      • Restaurant Ambassaduers box 13 folder 30
      • La Revue de Moulin Rouge box 13 folder 31
      • Le Can Can de la Cote D'Azur-1934 box 13 folder 32
      • Folies Bergere box 13 folder 33
      • Misc. Programs box 13 folder 34
    • Music
      • On San Francisco Bay box 13 folder 35
      • Radio City Series of Standard and Classical Music box 13 folder 36
      • Das hat die Welt-Music, photos, program box 13 folder 37
      • Cigarretten box 13 folder 38
      • Standard Latin-American Library box 13 folder 39
      • Bird of Paradise box 13 folder 40
      • Come to Me Chimpanzee box 13 folder 41
      • Paree's a Branch of Broadway box 13 folder 42
      • Brother Masons box 13 folder 43
      • Ouvre Ton Coeur (Open Thy Heart)-Bizet box 13 folder 44
      • California Here I Come box 13 folder 45
      • G.O.P box 13 folder 46
      • Alegrias box 13 folder 47
      • Favorite Spanish Dances for Piano Solo box 13 folder 48
      • Spring Song box 13 folder 49
      • Piano Compositions by Spanish Composers box 13 folder 50
      • The Gertrude Hoffmann Glide box 13 folder 51
      • College Chums box 13 folder 52
      • Malaguena box 13 folder 53
      • Percy box 13 folder 54
      • I Want to Step box 13 folder 55
      • Album of Eight Pieces for Piano box 13 folder 56
      • Misc. Music-Printed and Handwritten box 11 folder 7
      • Chopin Waltz Parts-Fencing Folder box 13 folder 57
    • Advertisements
      • B.F. Keith's Theatre Advertisement box 13 folder 58
      • Helen Tamaris, Dance School Advertisement box 13 folder 59
      • Moulin Rouge Advertisement box 13 folder 60
      • School of the Dance: Acrobatics, Physical Training and Stage Fencing-Hoffmann, Tarasoff, Herrman box 13 folder 61
    • Hoffmann Girls article box 13 folder 62
    • Bar exercise workbook box 13 folder 63

Summary Information

Repository
Z. Smith Reynolds Library Special Collections and Archives
Title
Gertrude and Max Hoffmann Papers
ID
MS608
Date [inclusive]
1900-1956
Extent
22.7 Linear Feet  2 document boxes, 8 oversized document boxes, 2 flat boxes, 1 flat document box, 1 trunk, 4 oversize items

Administrative Information

Publication Information
Z. Smith Reynolds Library Special Collections and Archives
Revision Description
 Revised by Stephanie Bennett 2017, 2021
Conditions Governing Access Note
This collection is open for research; some oversize items are restricted due to fragility. Contact Special Collections and Archives for more information. 
Existence and Location of Copies Note
Music manuscripts are available as a digital collection. Photographs are available as a digital collection
Preferred Citation
Gertrude and Max Hoffmann Papers (MS608), Z. Smith Reynolds Library Special Collections and Archives, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. 

Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Gertrude Hoffmann Company
  • Gertrude Hoffmann Girls

Personal Name(s)

  • Terris, Norma -- Pictorial works
  • Hoffmann, Max
  • Hoffmann, Gertrude

Subject(s)

  • Ragtime music
  • Vaudeville -- United States
  • Choreographers
  • Women dancers
  • Dancers
  • Arrangers (Musicians)
  • Conductors (Music)
  • Composers
  • Women choreographers

Preservation Note

Newspapers and photographs have been flattened and repaired.

Bibliography

Berlin, Edward. Ragtime: A Musical and Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Print.

Bird, Dorothy and Joyce Greenburg. Bird's Eye View: Dancing with Martha Graham and on Broadway. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997. Electronic.

Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Theatre: A Chronicle. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.

Cohen-Stratyner, Barbara Naomi. "Hoffman, Gertrude." Biographical Dictionary of Dance. New York: Schirmer Books, 1982. Print.

Cohen-Stratyner, Barbara Naomi. "The Borrowed Art of Gertrude Hoffman." Dance Data? (Unfinished citation)

Cullen, Frank et. al. " Hoffman, Gertrude." Vaudeville Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print

Glenn, Susan A. " 'Give an Imitation of me': Vaudeville Mimics and the Play of Self." American Quarterly, 50.1 (1998): 47-76. Electronic.

Hamberlin, Larry. "Visions of Salome: The Femme Fatale in American Popular Songs before1920." Journal of the American Musicological Society, 59.3 (2006): 631-696. Electronic.

"Hoffmann, Max." ASCAP Biographical Dictionary, 4th ed. New York: Jaques Catell Press, 1980. Print.

"Hoffmann, Max." Oxford Music Online. August 4, 2010. Electronic.

Jasen, David A. and Trebor Jay Tichenor. Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History. New York: The Seabury Press, 1978. Print.

Jowitt, Deborah. Time and the Dancing Image. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1988.Print.

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