Home WakeSpace Scholarship › Electronic Theses and Dissertations

BIOMECHANICS OF AN AMPHIBIOUS FISH: MORPHOLOGY, KINEMATICS, KINETICS, AND MOTOR CONTROL OF THE MANGROVE RIVULUS, KRYPTOLEBIAS MARMORATUS (CYPRINODONTIFORMES)

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Item Files

Item Details

abstract
Animal function does not always fit its body form, with the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) being a terrific exemplar. This modern teleost fish has a characteristic-looking fish body plan that does not suggest its ability to efficiently transition from water to land, let alone to locomote once out of the water. I performed many exploratory studies to describe the types of behaviors these fish use during their forays onto land and how they move on land, along with describing the morphology of their axial musculature. I predicted these fish would generate forces in a direction that would result in maximum lateral displacement for the purposes of trying to avoid a predator, find another body of water, or to search for food on land. I also predicted the motor pattern that drives the escape response for these fish in aquatic habitats will be similar to the motor pattern used to drive the escape response when on land since the behaviors look very similar. We used high speed video cameras to record individuals transitioning from water to land via a clay ramp (15° slope). I also used a multi-axis force plate to measure the ground reaction forces (GRF) generated and the impulse values (force x time) in three directions, comparing individuals to the exclusively aquatic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). I recorded the motor patterns generated in water and on land via electromyography. K. marmoratus used the launch, pounce, and squiggle to transition out of the water. The greatest GRF were generated in the anteroposterior (AP) direction, as expected, for the mangrove rivulus to achieve maximum lateral displacement, compared to the bass, which showed little to no lateral displacement. Impulses for the rivulus were the greatest in AP direction, whereas they were greatest in the vertical direction for bass. Mangrove rivulus used a modified C-start motor pattern (used in aquatic escape responses) to drive the terrestrial tail-flip. There is a trend that the axial muscles have separate dorsal and longitudinal bundles, possibly allowing for greater control of the tail-flip. Without having obvious morphological characteristics suggesting these fish are able to move well out of water, we have a terrific example providing insight that amphibious behavior might be more common than previously thought.
subject
amphibious
ground reaction force
kinematics
mangrove rivulus
motor patterns
water-land transition
contributor
Perlman, Benjamin Michael (author)
Ashley-Ross, Miriam A (committee chair)
Long, John (committee member)
Conner, William (committee member)
Silman, Miles (committee member)
Silver, Wayne (committee member)
date
2016-05-21T08:35:44Z (accessioned)
2016-05-21T08:35:44Z (available)
2016 (issued)
degree
Biology (discipline)
identifier
http://hdl.handle.net/10339/59298 (uri)
language
en (iso)
publisher
Wake Forest University
title
BIOMECHANICS OF AN AMPHIBIOUS FISH: MORPHOLOGY, KINEMATICS, KINETICS, AND MOTOR CONTROL OF THE MANGROVE RIVULUS, KRYPTOLEBIAS MARMORATUS (CYPRINODONTIFORMES)
type
Dissertation

Usage Statistics