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Characterizing Task-Switching Performance in Adults with ADHD

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title
Characterizing Task-Switching Performance in Adults with ADHD
author
Sams, Katherine
abstract
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been shown to affect many areas of executive functioning, including task-switching. Individuals with ADHD are typically slower and less accurate when switching between tasks during a cued paradigm. However, Sams et al. (2017) examined task-switching ability in adult ADHD with a more naturalistic voluntary paradigm that requires participants to decide when to switch tasks. Results indicated smaller switch costs and more frequent switching by those with ADHD when compared to a control group. The current study was thus designed to try to replicate the results of Sams et al. (2017) and to address why individuals with ADHD might exhibit seemingly better task-switching performance despite their greater difficulties with executive functioning. Specifically, it was hypothesized that individuals with ADHD may form less durable task-sets that allow for switching unimpeded by the need for the time consuming process of task-set reconfiguration or the influence of proactive interference. To test this idea, performance on a voluntary task-switching paradigm that manipulated the response-to-stimulus interval (RSI) and an operation span task (OSPAN), as well as self-reported executive functioning deficits, were compared between an ADHD group and a control group. Results failed to replicate those of Sams et al. (2017), perhaps due to low power and differences in paradigm design, and manipulation of RSI was unsuccessful in providing insight into underlying mechanisms.
subject
ADHD
adults
executive functioning
task-sets
task-switching
contributor
Jennings, Janine M (committee chair)
Best, Deborah L (committee member)
Dagenbach, Dale (committee member)
Friedman, Jacqueline N (committee member)
date
2018-08-23T08:35:43Z (accessioned)
2020-08-22T08:30:18Z (available)
2018 (issued)
degree
Psychology (discipline)
embargo
2020-08-22 (terms)
identifier
http://hdl.handle.net/10339/92391 (uri)
language
en (iso)
publisher
Wake Forest University
type
Thesis

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